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MM3D File Format

Contents

Overview

This document describes version 1.6 of the MM3D file format. Data that is available only in specific versions will be noted below. All other data is common to every version of the file format. Previous releases of Misfit Model 3D that do not read all data segments should still be able to load model files, though some information may be lost.

The MM3D file format was designed to be easy to extend and easy to read to extract just the information you want. The header will tell you what information is included in the file and give you offsets to the location where the information is in the file.

Data sections have their own header before the data. Each data type is either a fixed size or a variable size. If the data size is fixed (constant, Type B) the data size immediatley precedes the data block of the data section. If the data size is variable (Type A) the data size precedes each data element.

MM3D uses Intel byte order (least significant byte first). Bytes are 8 bits. The types specified in the Type fields below are ints (signed integers) or uints (unsigned integers). The type designation is followed by a number which designates the number of bits in that integer. The type may be multiplied by a constant or variable number to get the full length of the field. Variables are generally data fields from earlier sections in the file. In the data chunks there is also a float32 which is a 32-bit floating point number and an ASCIIZ which is every byte up to and including the next null byte. ASCIIZ strings are truncated to 1024 bytes (including the terminating null) if necessary.

As of MM3D version 1.4 all text strings are encoded as UTF-8. Versions 1.2 and earlier used extended ASCII encoding. If you want your MM3D models to be usable in new and older versions of MM3D you should use only standard ASCII characters (0-127) for model object names and texture filenames.

File Header

The file header is 12 bytes.

Data Type Notes Description
MAGIC_NUMBER int8 * 8 'MISFIT3D' If the first 8 bytes do not match this string it is not an MM3D file
MAJOR_VERSION uint8 0x01 Major version number, the file format may be incompatible with newer or older filters if the major version number does not match
MINOR_VERSION uint8 0x06 Minor version number, older filters should be able to get useful data from the file but may not understand the value of all flags or data segments
MODEL_FLAGS uint8 0x00 (reserved) Currently there are no model-wide flags, this byte is reserved in case such flags are ever needed
OFFSET_COUNT uint8   This is the number of data segments. It tells you how many offsets are in the next section of the file

Data Offsets

Data offsets are 6 bytes each. The value of [OFFSET_COUNT] in the header specifies how many data offsets are in this section.

The data offsets section is [OFFSET_COUNT] instances of:

Data Type Description
OFFSET_TYPE uint16 Type of data for this offset (types listed in the next section)
OFFSET_VALUE uint32 Offset to the data segment for this type (offset is from the start of the file)

Data Offset Types

The following is a list of known data segment types. Types are 16 bits. Bit 15 (0x8000) is a "uniform" flag, meaning data of that type is a fixed (constant) size.

Bit 14 (0x4000) is the dirty flag. If Mifit Model 3D encounters a data segment it does not understand it will keep a copy of the raw data and write that data to a file if the model is saved again. It will add the dirty bit to indicate to other model readers that this data was written by a version of the program that did not understand the data. It is therefore "dirty" and may be inconsistent with the model. Under these circumstances the reader may chose to discard the data or attempt to verify and use it.

The end of file offset is a special offset and indicates the file size. You should always check this value against the file size to be certain that the file is complete. There is no data at the end of file offset.

Type A (variable)

Type A Version Description
0x1001 1.4+ Meta data
0x1002   Unknown type information (not implemented)
0x0101   Groups
0x0141   Embedded textures (not implemented)
0x0142   External textures
0x0161   Materials
0x016c 1.6+ Texture Projections Triangles
0x0191 1.4+ Canvas Background Images
0x0301   Skeletal Animations
0x0321   Frame Animations
0x0326 1.6+ Frame Animation Points
0x0341   Frame Relative Animations (not implemented)
0x3fff   End of file (offset is file size)

Type B (fixed)

Type B Version Description
0x8001   Vertices
0x8021   Triangles
0x8026   Triangle Normals
0x8041   Joints
0x8046   Joint Vertices
0x8061 1.6+ Points
0x8106 1.4+ Smoothness Angles
0x8146 1.6+ Weighted Influences
0x8168 1.6+ Texture Projections (sphere/cylinder map)
0x8121   Texture Coordinates

User Defined Blocks

Types 0x0000 through 0x1fff are reserved for Misfit Model 3D defined types. 0x4000 through 0xffff are reserved for the uniform and dirty bit versions of each type. If you want to add a type for your own use it is recommended that you use a value in the 0x2000 through 0x2fff range. Suggestions for types which may be useful to other uses are welcome and may be incorporated into future versions.

Data Blocks

Data Blocks have a header and a data chunk. The data blocks are similar between types A and B. The only difference is how the size of each data element is handled. In Type A the size is included before each data element in the data chunk. In Type B the size is included at the end of the header and before the data chunk itself.

The size of a data element may change. When reading data from an MM3D file it is important to note if the size of the element is different from the expected size. If it is smaller, data at the end of the element has been omitted. If larger, data has been appended to the end of the element's data type and must be skipped over during data parsing. These situations may happen if your filter is reading a file written by a newer or older version of Misfit Model 3D. Data size changes will be rare but should be accounted for.

Type A

Data header:

Data Type Description
DATA_FLAGS uint16 Flags for the data segment (currently unused, should be 0x0000)
DATA_COUNT_A uint32 The number of elements in each data chunk

Data chunk:

Data Type Description
DATA_SIZE_A uint32 Size of this element of data
DATA_CHUNK_A uint8 * [DATA_SIZE_A] One element of [DATA_SIZE_A] size, Data Block Types are defined below

Type B

Data header:

Data Type Description
DATA_FLAGS uint16 Flags for the data segment (currently unused, should be 0x0000)
DATA_COUNT_B uint32 The number of elements in each data chunk
DATA_SIZE_B uint32 Size of each element of data

Data chunk:

Data Type Description
DATA_CHUNK_B uint8 * [DATA_SIZE_B] * [DATA_COUNT_B] [DATA_COUNT_B] elements of [DATA_SIZE_B] size, Data Block Types are defined below

Data Block Types

Meta Data

Version 1.4 and later.

The meta data section contains key/values pairs of ASCIIZ strings. These key/value pairs do not affect model display in any way. These are purely informational strings for things like copyright, contact, URLs, etc.

Keys are case-sensitive and do not have to be unique (though having two identical keys is bad form).

Data Version Type Description
META_KEY 1.4+ ASCIIZ Key for this meta data key/value pair
META_VALUE 1.4+ ASCIIZ Value associated with meta data key

Vertices

Data Type Description
VERTEX_FLAGS uint16 See vertex flags below
VERTEX_COORD_X float32 X coordinate of the vertex
VERTEX_COORD_Y float32 Y coordinate of the vertex
VERTEX_COORD_Z float32 Z coordinate of the vertex

Vertex flags:

Bits Version Data Description
0   Hidden Set if hidden, clear if visible
1   Selected Set if selected, clear if unselected
2 1.6+ Free Vertex Set if vertex does not have to be connected to a face (don't auto-delete when face is deleted)

Triangles

The triangles section describes the triangular faces of the model. The vertex indices are 0-based indices into the vertex array from the vertices section.

Data Type Description
TRIANGLE_FLAGS uint16 See triangle flags below
TRIANGLE_VERTEX_1 uint32 Index of vertex 1 of the triangle
TRIANGLE_VERTEX_2 uint32 Index of vertex 2 of the triangle
TRIANGLE_VERTEX_3 uint32 Index of vertex 3 of the triangle

Triangle flags:

Bits Data Description
0 Hidden Set if hidden, clear if visible
1 Selected Set if selected, clear if unselected

Triangle Normals

Version 1.4 and later.

The triangle normals section describes the normals for each face of the model. Each block is composed of a triangle index that indicates to which triangle the normals apply to, followed by three sets (one for each triangle vertex) of three floating point numbers (one for each dimension).

Data Version Type Description
TRI_NORM_FLAGS 1.4+ uint16 Reserved, should be 0
TRI_NORM_INDEX 1.4+ uint32 Triangle index (0 based)
TRI_NORM_V1_NORM 1.4+ float32 * 3 Normals for vertex 1 (XYZ)
TRI_NORM_V2_NORM 1.4+ float32 * 3 Normals for vertex 2 (XYZ)
TRI_NORM_V3_NORM 1.4+ float32 * 3 Normals for vertex 3 (XYZ)

Joints

The joint section describes joints used for skeletal animations. Their orientation information is relative to their parent joint's orientation.

Data Type Description
JOINT_FLAGS uint16 See joint flags below
JOINT_NAME int8 * 40 Joint name
JOINT_PARENT uint32 Index of parent joint
JOINT_LOCAL_ROT_X float32 X rotation of joint relative to parent (in radians)
JOINT_LOCAL_ROT_Y float32 Y rotation of joint relative to parent
JOINT_LOCAL_ROT_Z float32 Z rotation of joint relative to parent
JOINT_LOCAL_TRANS_X float32 X offset of joint relative to parent (or origin if root joint)
JOINT_LOCAL_TRANS_Y float32 Y offset of joint relative to parent
JOINT_LOCAL_TRANS_Z float32 Z offset of joint relative to parent

Joint flags:

Bits Data Description
0 Hidden (ingored) Set if hidden, clear if visible
1 Selected Set if selected, clear if unselected

Joint Vertices

The joint vertices section associates vertices with joints.

NOTE: As of version 1.6 this data is deprecated. Use the Weighted Influences data instead. This data section is maintained for backwards compatibility. Newer files should have this data and the Weighted Influences data. If the Weighted Influences section is present it takes precedence over this data. When writing this data, only one joint per vertex is allowed. The joint with the most influence (highest weight) on the vertex is the joint index that should be used.

Data Type Description
VERTEX_INDEX uint32 Index into vertex array
JOINT_INDEX uint32 Index into joint array for this vertex

Points

Version 1.6 and later.

Points are objects that have a position and orientation. They can be attached to bone joints for animation purposes. Points do not affect model geometry in any way. They are simply reference objects for specifying a location in the model. One potential use for this is bolt points for attaching one model to another (such as tags in MD3 models).

Note that the POINT_JOINT element is deprecated. It should still be set in MM3D files (or -1 if no bone joint assignment). If the point is assigned to multiple bone joints, the joint with the most influence (highest weight) should be used. When reading MM3D files, the POINT_JOINT element should usable, but any data in the Weighted Influences section takes precedence over this value.

Data Type Description
POINT_FLAGS uint16 See point flags below
POINT_NAME int8 * 40 Point name
POINT_TYPE int32 Type of point (reserved, should be zero)
POINT_JOINT int32 Index of parent joint (deprecated, use Weighted Influences)
POINT_ROT_X float32 X rotation of point (in radians)
POINT_ROT_Y float32 Y rotation of point
POINT_ROT_Z float32 Z rotation of point
POINT_TRANS_X float32 X position of point
POINT_TRANS_Y float32 Y position of point
POINT_TRANS_Z float32 Z position of point

Point flags:

Bits Data Description
0 Hidden (ingored) Set if hidden, clear if visible
1 Selected Set if selected, clear if unselected

Smoothness Angles

Version 1.4 and later.

Defines the maximum angle at which triangle edges in a group will be averaged for normal calculation. If two triangles share an edge that is greater than this angle, the edge will appear sharp rather than rounded.

Data Version Type Description
GROUP_INDEX 1.4+ uint32 Index into group array
ANGLE 1.4+ uint8 Maximum angle (in degrees) to use in smoothing normals (0-180)

Groups

The groups section groups faces (triangles) for editing or texturing purposes. Textures are applied to groups, so faces must be grouped in order to have a texture applied.

Data Type Description
GROUP_FLAGS uint16 See group flags below
GROUP_NAME ASCIIZ Name of the group of faces
TRIANGLE_COUNT uint32 Number of triangles in the group
TRIANGLE_INDICES uint32 * [TRIANGLE_COUNT] Index of each triangle belonging to the group
GROUP_SMOOTHNESS uint8 Determines how the face normals are interpolated between faces. 0 = flat along face plane, ff=averaged between all planes that share the vertex
GROUP_MATERIAL uint32 Index into material list (0xffffffff for none)

Group flags:

Bits Data Description
0 Hidden (ingored) Set if hidden, clear if visible
1 Selected Set if selected, clear if unselected

Weighted Influences

Version 1.6 and later.

The weighted influences section describes how vertices and points are assigned to bone joints. Objects can be assigned to multiple bone joints. This is the preferred method to save and load bone joint assignments for vertices and points. New versions of Misfit Model 3D will use this data if it is present and the deprecated data sections if this data is not present.

The type of influence can be automatic (based on the position of the object relative to the bone joint), remainder (100 minus the sum of all other joint weights), or custom (manually entered by the user). If the type is "Remainder" and the sum of the influence of other joints is greater than 100, the remainder value is 0 (it is never negative).

The weight of each influence ranges from 0 to 100. The relative influence of each joint is the percentage of the total influence of all joints. The sum off all influence weights does not have to be 100. For example a single joint with a weight of 80 will have 100% influence. Two joints that each have a weight of 80 will each have 50% influence. One joint with a weight of 40 and another with a weight of 80 will have 33% and 67% influence respectively.

Data Type Description
POS_TYPE uint8 Type of object influenced by joint (see position types below)
POS_INDEX uint32 Index into vertex or point array (based on position type)
INF_INDEX uint32 Bone joint index
INF_TYPE uint8 Type influence by joint (see influence types below)
INF_WEIGHT int8 Weight of this joint's influence (0 to 100)

Position Types:

Number Version Type
0 1.6+ Vertex
2 1.6+ Point

Influence Types:

Number Version Type
0 1.6+ Custom (manually entered by user)
1 1.6+ Automatic
2 1.6+ Remainder

Texture Projections

Version 1.6 and later.

The texture projection section describes objects that map triangle texture coordinates onto a texture as a cylinder or sphere. The "up" vector defines which direction is the U component of the texture projection. In some cases (such as cylinder) the magnitude of this vector determines the size of the projection area. The "seam" vector indicates where the V texture component starts and 0.0 and wraps back to 0.0 after reaching 1.0.

Data Type Description
PROJ_FLAGS uint16 See projection flags below
PROJ_NAME int8 * 40 Projection name
PROJ_TYPE int32 Type of Projection (see types below)
PROJ_POS_X float32 X coordinate of projection center
PROJ_POS_Y float32 Y coordinate of projection center
PROJ_POS_Z float32 Z coordinate of projection center
PROJ_UPVEC_X float32 X component of up vector
PROJ_UPVEC_Y float32 Y component of up vector
PROJ_UPVEC_Z float32 Z component of up vector
PROJ_SEAMVEC_X float32 X component of seam vector
PROJ_SEAMVEC_Y float32 Y component of seam vector
PROJ_SEAMVEC_Z float32 Z component of seam vector
PROJ_MIN_U float32 Minimum U texture coordinate
PROJ_MIN_V float32 Minimum V texture coordinate
PROJ_MAX_U float32 Maximum U texture coordinate
PROJ_MAX_V float32 Maximum V texture coordinate

Projection flags:

None

Projection types:

Number Version Type
0 1.6+ Cylinder
1 1.6+ Sphere

Texture Coordinates

The texture coordinates section maps the vertices of a triangle onto a material's texture. Texture coordinates range from (0.0, 0.0) to (1.0, 1.0). The origin (0,0) of a texture is the lower-left corner, not the upper-left. Values outside of the 0.0 to 1.0 range are valid.

Data Type Description
TEXCOORD_FLAGS uint16 Unused
TEXCOORD_TRIANGLE uint32 Triangle for this texture coordinate set
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_1_S float32 S (x) coordinate for triangle vertex 1
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_2_S float32 S (x) coordinate for triangle vertex 2
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_3_S float32 S (x) coordinate for triangle vertex 3
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_1_T float32 T (y) coordinate for triangle vertex 1
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_2_T float32 T (y) coordinate for triangle vertex 2
TEXCOORD_VERTEX_3_T float32 T (y) coordinate for triangle vertex 3

External textures

The external textures section describes the textures in the model. The textures are assigned to materials which describe the lighting properties. Groups reference materials. One texture may be referenced by many materials.

Data Type Description
TEXTURE_FLAGS uint16 Flags for texture (unused)
TEXTURE_PATH ASCIIZ File path to texture relative to model (directory separator is backslash)

Materials

The materials section describes the materials in the model. The materials reference textures and describe the lighting properties. Groups reference materials. Some materials do not have textures. For materials without textures, the MATERIAL_TEXTURE element is still present but the value is ignored. The MATERIAL_FLAGS element indicates if the material has a texture (see below).

Data Type Description
MATERIAL_FLAGS uint16 See material flags below
MATERIAL_TEXTURE uint32 Texture index for this material
MATERIAL_NAME ASCIIZ Name of the material
MATERIAL_AMBIENT float32 * 4 Ambient light properties (RGBA)
MATERIAL_DIFFUSE float32 * 4 Diffuse light properties (RGBA)
MATERIAL_SPECULAR float32 * 4 Specular light properties (RGBA)
MATERIAL_EMISSIVE float32 * 4 Emissive light properties (RGBA)
MATERIAL_SHININESS float32 Shininess

Material flags:

The Clamp S and Clamp T values specify whether texture coordinates outside of the 0.0 to 1.0 range should wrap or not. If the bit is set, the texture wraps. If the bit is clear the colors at the edge of the texture are stretched.

Bits Version Data Description
0-3   Material type 0 = external texture, 15 = Blank (no texture, only lighting), 1-14 = reserved
4 1.4+ Clamp S Clamp S texture coordinates (do not tile/repeat)
5 1.4+ Clamp T Clamp T texture coordinates (do not tile/repeat)

Texture Projection Triangles

Version 1.6 and later.

The texture projection triangles section is a list of which triangles are using a specified texture projection to set their texture coordinates.

Data Type Description
PROJ_INDEX uint32 Texture Projection Index to which these triangles are assigned
TRI_COUNT uint32 Number of triangles assigned to this projection
TRI_INDICES uint32 * [TRI_COUNT] List of triangle indices that are assigned to projection

Canvas Background Images

Version 1.4 and later.

The Canvas Background Image section describes background images that appear in canvas views. There can be one background image for each of the six canvas views (Front, Back, Left, Right, Top, Bottom) and each can be scaled and positioned independently. Canvas background images are for editing purposes only and should not be rendered as part of the model itself.

Data Version Type Description
CANVBACKIMAGE_FLAGS 1.4+ uint16 Reserved, should be 0
CANVBACKIMAGE_VIEWINDEX 1.4+ uint8 View direction (see below)
CANVBACKIMAGE_SCALE 1.4+ float32 Image scale (1.0 = center to top/left is 1.0 OpenGL unit)
CANVBACKIMAGE_CENTER 1.4+ float32 * 3 Center coordinates of image
CANVBACKIMAGE_FILENAME 1.4+ ASCIIZ Filename of the image to load (relative path)

Canvas Background Image View Directions

View Index Version Direction
0 1.4+ Front
1 1.4+ Back
2 1.4+ Left
3 1.4+ Right
4 1.4+ Top
5 1.4+ Bottom

Skeletal Animations

The skeletal animations section describes the skeletal animations in the model. It includes all frames of all skeletal animations. This mostly consists of animation data and joint keyframes.

Data Type Description
SKEL_FLAGS uint16 Flags for skeletal animation (unused)
SKEL_NAME ASCIIZ Name of animation
SKEL_FPS float32 Frames per second
SKEL_FRAME_COUNT uint32 Number of frames in animation
SKEL_FRAME_DATA SKEL_FRAME_TYPE * [SKEL_FRAME_COUNT] Frame data for skeletal animation, see below

Skeletal frame data type:

Data Type Description
SKEL_KEYFRAME_COUNT uint32 Number of joint keyframes for this skeletal animation frame
SKEL_KEYFRAME_DATA SKEL_KEYFRAME_TYPE * [SKEL_KEYFRAME_COUNT] Keyframe data for this frame, see below

Skeletal keyframe data type:

Data Type Description
SKEL_KEYFRAME_JOINT uint32 Joint that this keyframe is for
SKEL_KEYFRAME_ANIM_TYPE uint8 Keyframe type: 0 = translation, 1 = rotation
SKEL_KEYFRAME_POS_X float32 X position data (translation or rotation [in radians])
SKEL_KEYFRAME_POS_Y float32 Y position data
SKEL_KEYFRAME_POS_Z float32 Z position data

Frame Animations

The frame animations section describes the frame animations in the model. It includes all frames of all frame animations. This mostly consists of animation data and vertex positions for each animation frame (each frame is vertex positions for every vertex in the model).

Data Type Description
FRAME_FLAGS uint16 Flags for skeletal animation (unused)
FRAME_NAME ASCIIZ Name of animation
FRAME_FPS float32 Frames per second
FRAME_COUNT uint32 Number of frames in animation
FRAME_DATA FRAME_ANIM_DATA * [FRAME_COUNT] Vertex position data for each frame, see below

Frame animation frame data type:

Data Type Description
FRAME_VERTEX_DATA FRAME_VERTEX_TYPE * [VERTEX_COUNT] Vertex position data for each vertex in this frame, see below

Frame animation vertex data type:

Data Type Description
FRAME_VERTEX_COORD_X float32 X coordinate for vertex
FRAME_VERTEX_COORD_Y float32 Y coordinate for vertex
FRAME_VERTEX_COORD_Z float32 Z coordinate for vertex

Frame Animation Points

Version 1.6 and later.

The frame animations points section describes the location and rotation of points in frame animations.

Data Type Description
FPOINT_FLAGS uint16 Flags for skeletal animation (unused)
FPOINT_ANIM uint32 Index of frame animation
FPOINT_FRAME_COUNT uint32 Number of frames that follow
FPOINT_POINT_DATA FPOINT_FRAME_DATA * [FPOINT_FRAME_COUNT] * [POINT_COUNT] Point position and rotation data for each frame, see below

There is one of these data structures for each point for each animation frame. Frame animation point data type:

Data Type Description
FPOINT_ROT_X float32 X rotation of point (in radians)
FPOINT_ROT_Y float32 Y rotation of point
FPOINT_ROT_Z float32 Z rotation of point
FPOINT_TRANS_X float32 X position of point
FPOINT_TRANS_Y float32 Y position of point
FPOINT_TRANS_Z float32 Z position of point

Example Hex Dump

This is an example hex dump of a cube with grouped faces. It is color-coded to highlight the different parts of the file.

Key:

  • File header green
  • Offsets blue
  • Vertices dark red
  • Faces magenta
  • Groups light red
0000000: 4d49 5346 4954 3344 0101 0004 0180 2400 MISFIT3D......$.
0000010: 0000 2180 9e00 0000 0101 5001 0000 ff3f ..!.......P...?
0000020: a001 0000 0000 0800 0000 0e00 0000 0200 ................
0000030: 0000 803f 0000 80bf 0000 803f 0200 0000 ...?.......?....
0000040: 80bf 0000 80bf 0000 803f 0200 0000 803f .........?.....?
0000050: 0000 803f 0000 803f 0200 0000 80bf 0000 ...?...?........
0000060: 803f 0000 803f 0000 0000 80bf 0000 80bf .?...?..........
0000070: 0000 80bf 0000 0000 803f 0000 80bf 0000 .........?......
0000080: 80bf 0000 0000 80bf 0000 803f 0000 80bf ...........?....
0000090: 0000 0000 803f 0000 803f 0000 80bf 0000 .....?...?......
00000a0: 0c00 0000 0e00 0000 0000 0300 0000 0100 ................
00000b0: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0200 0000 ................
00000c0: 0300 0000 0000 0700 0000 0500 0000 0400 ................
00000d0: 0000 0000 0400 0000 0600 0000 0700 0000 ................
00000e0: 0000 0200 0000 0000 0000 0500 0000 0000 ................
00000f0: 0500 0000 0700 0000 0200 0000 0000 0600 ................
0000100: 0000 0400 0000 0100 0000 0000 0100 0000 ................
0000110: 0300 0000 0600 0000 0000 0700 0000 0600 ................
0000120: 0000 0300 0000 0000 0300 0000 0200 0000 ................
0000130: 0700 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 0000 0400 ................
0000140: 0000 0000 0400 0000 0500 0000 0000 0000 ................
0000150: 0000 0100 0000 4600 0000 0000 6772 6f75 ......F.....grou
0000160: 7020 6e61 6d65 000c 0000 0000 0000 0001 p name..........
0000170: 0000 0002 0000 0003 0000 0004 0000 0005 ................
0000180: 0000 0006 0000 0007 0000 0008 0000 0009 ................
0000190: 0000 000a 0000 000b 0000 00ff ffff ffff ...........

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Last updated: Sat Aug 1 08:57:03 PDT 2009
Copyright © 2004-2009, Kevin Worcester -- email kevin at the misfitcode.com domain.